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Thursday, December 22, 2016

SCIENTIFIC ARGUMENT

TAKING A SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE, YOU HAVE TO SEE ISLAM IN THE LIGHT OF THE ISLAMIC SCRIPTURES AND NOT JUDGE IT BY MUSLIM CONDUCT.
RELIGION, OR FAITH, RELATES TO ISSUES SUCH AS THE EXISTENCE OF GOD, SOMETHING INTANGIBLE AND UNOBSERVABLE, UNLIKE NON-RELIGIOUS THINGS LIKE THE SUN, WHICH HAS A TANGIBLE AND OBSERVABLE EXISTENCE. THEREFORE, IT CAME TO BE HELD THAT ONLY NON-RELIGIOUS MATTERS MIGHT BE ESTABLISHED BY DIRECT ARGUMENT, WHILE IT IS ONLY DIRECT OR INFERENTIAL ARGUMENT, WHILE IT IS ONLY DIRECT OR INFERENTIAL ARGUMENT WHICH CAN BE USED TO PROVE RELIGIOUS PROPOSITIONS.

IT WAS BELIEVED, THEREFORE, THAT RATIONAL ARGUMENT WAS POSSIBLE ONLY IN NON-RELIGIOUS MATTERS, AND SO FAR AS RELIGIOUS MATTERS WERE CONCERNED, RATIONAL ARGUMENT WAS NOT APPLICABLE AT ALL. THAT IS TO SAY, THAT IT WAS ONLY IN NON-RELIGIOS AREAS THAT PRIMARY RATIONALISM WAS POSSIBLE, WHILE IN RELIGION ONLY SECONDARY RATIONALISM WAS APPLICABLE.
IN THE PAS, ARGUMENTS BASED ON ARISTOLEAN LOGIC USED TO BE APPLIED TO FAITH. BY ITS VERY NATURE IT WAS AN INDIRECT ARGUMENT. MODERN CRITICS, THEREFORE, IGNORED SUCH ARGUMENTS AS UNWORTHY OF CONSIDERATION. THAT IS WHY RELIGION WAS NOT THOUGHT WORTHY OF BEING PAID ANY ATTENTION BY RATIONAL PEOPLE. THIS STATE OF AFFAIRS PRESENTED A CHALLENGE NOT ONLY TO OTHER RELIGIONS BUT TO ISLAM AS WELL.

ABOUT FIVE HUNDRED YEARS AGO, WITH THE EMERGENCE OF SCIENCE, THIS STATE OF AFFAIRS DID NOT CHANGE. ALL THE SCIENTISTS IN THE WAKE OF THE RENAISSANCE BELIEVED THAT MATTER, IN FACT, THE ENTIRE MATERIAL WORLD WAS SOMETHING SOLID WHICH COULD BE OBSERVED. NEWTON HAD EVEN FORMED A THEORY THAT LIGHT CONSISTED OF TINY CORPUSCLES. AS SUCH, IT WAS POSSIBLE TO APPLY DIRECT ARGUMENT AS AN EXPLANATION OF MATERIAL THINGS. SIMILARLY, EVEN AFTER THE EMERGENCE OF MODERN SCIENCE, THIS STATE OF AFFAIRS PREVAILED. IT CONTINUED TO BE BELIEVED THAT THE KIND OF ARGUMENT WHICH IS APPLIED TO APPARENTLY TANGIBLE THINGS COULD NOT BE APPLIED IN THE CASE OF RELIGION.

BUT BY THE EARLY TWENTIETH CENTURY, SPECIFICALLY AFTER THE FIRST WORLD WAR, THIS MENTAL CLIMATE CHANGED COMPLETELY. THE ANCIENT GREEK PHILOSOPHERS BELIEVED THAT MATTER, IN THE LAST ANALYSIS, WAS COMPOSED OF ATOMS, AND THE ATOM, THOUGH VERY TINY, WAS A PIECE OF SOLID MATTER. BUT WITH THE BREAKING OF THE ATOM IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY, ALL THE POPULAR SCIENTIFIC CONCEPTS UNDERWENT A SEA CHANGE. THE THEORIES ABOUT FAITH AND REASON SEEMED RELEVANT ONLY WHILE SCIENCE WAS CONFINED TO THE MACROCOSMIC LEVEL. LATER, WHEN SCIENCE ADVANCED TO THE MICROCOSMIC LEVEL, IT UNDERWENT A REVOLUTION, AND ALONG WITH IT, THE METHOD OF ARGUMENT ALSO CHANGED.

SO FAR, SCIENCE HAD BEEN BASED ON THE PROPOSITION THAT ALL THE THINGS IT BELIEVED IN, LIKE THE ATOM, COULD BE DIRECTLY EXPLAIN. BUT WHEN THE ATOM, THE SMALLEST PART OF AN ELEMENT, WAS SMASHED, IT WAS REVEALED THAT IT WAS NOT A MATERIAL ENTITY, BUT JUST ANOTHER NAME FOR UNOBSERVABLE WAVES OF ELECTRONS.

THIS DISCOVERY DEMONSTRATED HOW A SCIENTIST COULD SEE ONLY THE EFFECT OF A THING AND NOT THE THING ITSELF, FOR INSTANCE, THE ATOM, AFTER BEING SPLIT, PRODUCES ENERGY WHICH CAN BE CONVERTED INTO ELECTRICITY. THIS EVENT IS NOT OBSERVABLE EVEN BY A SCIENTIST. BUT WHEN SUCH AN EVENT PRODUCES AN EFFECT, FOR INSTANCE, IT LIGHTS UP A BULB OR SETS A MOTOR IN MOTION THIS EFFECT COMES UNDER A SCIENTIST'S OBSERVATION. SIMILARLY, THE WAVES FROM AN X-ray MACHINE, ARE NOT OBSERVABLE BY A SCIENTIST, BUT WHEN THEY PRODUCE THE IMAGE OF A HUMAN BODY ON A PLATE, THEN IT BECOMES OBSERVABLE.
NOW THE QUESTION AROSE AS TO WHAT STAND A SCIENTIST MUST TAKE? SHOULD HE BELIEVE IN A TANGIBLE EFFECT OR THE INTAGIBLE THING AS WELL, WHICH PRODUCED THAT EFFECT. SINCE THE SCIENTIST WAS BOUND TO BELIEVE IN ITS INTANGIBLE CAUSE.



HERE THE SCIENTIST FELT THAT DIRECT ARGUMENT COULD BE APPLIED TO THE TANGIBLE EFFECT, BUT THAT IT WAS NOT AT ALL POSSIBLE TO APPLY DIRECT ARGUMENT TO THE INTANGIBLE CAUSE. THE MOST IMPORTANT OF ALL THE CHANGES BROUGHT ABOUT BY THIS NEW DEVELOPMENT IN THE WORLD OF SCIENCE WAS THAT, IT WAS ADMITTED IN SCIENTIFIC CIRCLES THAT INFERENTIAL ARGUMENT WAS AS VALID AS DIRECT ARGUMENT. THAT IS, IF A CAUSE CONSISTENTLY GIVES RISE TO AN EFFECT, THE EXISTENCE OF THE INTANGIBLE CAUSE WILL BE ACCEPTED AS A PROVEN FACT, JUST AS THE EXISTENCE OF THE TANGIBLE EFFECT IS ACCEPTED BECAUSE IT IS OBSERVABLE. IN MODERN TIMES ALL THE CONCEPTS OF SCIENCE HELD TO BE ESTABLISHED HAVE BEEN PROVEN BY THIS VERY LOGIC.

AFTER REACHING THIS STAGE OF RATIONAL ARGUMENT THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN RELIGIOUS ARGUMENT AND SCIENTIFIC ARGUMENT CEASES TO EXIST. THE PROBLEM FACED EARLIER WAS THAT RELIGIOUS REALITIES, SUCH AS THE EXISTENCE OF GOD, COULD BE PROVED ONLY BY INFERENCE OR INDIRECT ARGUMENT. FOR INSTANCE, THE EXISTENCE OF GOD , AS A DESIGNER (CAUSE) WAS PRESUMED TO EXIST BECAUSE HIS DESIGN (EFFECT) COULD BE SEEN TO EXIST. BUT NOW THE SAME METHOD OF INDIRECT ARGUMENT HAS BEEN GENERALLY HELD TO BE VALID IN THE WORLD OF SCIENCE.

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In a Few words, I am a Muslim, a preacher, a traveler, a data base admin (Dip.) SYSTEM MANAGER (TEC). & (UWNT).

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