Friday, December 13, 2013
IMPORTANCE OF THE HIJRAH CALENDAR
All praises are due to Allah who placed in the alternation of day and night lessons, and made the disappearance of months and years a remembrance and admonition. I testify there is no god but Allah alone, who has placed in the sky great stars, and placed therein a sun the [burning] lamp and a luminous moon. And it is He who has made the night and the day in succession for whoever desires to remember or desires gratitude. I testify that Muhammad (pbuh) is the servant and apostle of Allah sent before the last hour as giver of good news and warner. And one who invites to Allah, by His permission, and an illuminating lamp. He conveyed the message, discharged the trust, admonished the Ummah, and strove in the cause of Allah sincerely. May Allah bestow peace and blessings on him (pbuh), his families, his companions and those after them in righteousness till the day of judgement. Thereafter, O Servants of Allah, fear Allah and the day of your return to Him. (يَوْمَ لاَ يَنْفَعُ مَالٌ وَلاَ بَنُون إِلاّ مَنْ أَتَى اللَّهَ بِقلْبٍ سَلِيمٍ) (الشعراء 88-89) “"The Day whereon neither wealth nor sons will avail, "But only he (will prosper) that brings to Allah a sound heart.”(26: 88- 89) (يَوْمَ تَجِدُ كُلُّ نفْسٍ مَا عَمِلَتْ مِنْ خَيْرٍ مُحْضرًا وما عمِلتْ مِنْ سُوءٍ تودُّ لوْ أنّ بيْنها وبيْنهُ أمدًا بعِيدًا وَيُحذِّرُكُمُ الله نَفْسهُ}(آل عمران 30) "On the Day when every soul will be confronted with all the good it has done, and all the evil it has done, it will wish there were a great distance between it and its evil. But Allah cautions you (To remember) Himself. " (3: 30) Dear servants of Allah we discussed last Friday the lesson derivable from the Prophet’s hijrah. Today being the third session on hijrah will focus on the importance of the hijrah calendar. Allah says: " هُوَ الذِي جَعَلَ الشَّمسَ ضِياءً والْقًمَرَ نُورًا وَقَدَّرَهُ مَنَازِلَ لِتَعْلَمُوا عَدَدَ السِّنِينَ وَالْحِسَابَ مَا خَلَقَ اللَّهُ ذَلِكَ إِلَّا بِالْحقِّ يُفَصِّلُ الآياتِ لِقَوْمٍ يَعْلَمُونَ" (يونس:5). “It is He Who made the sun to be a shining glory and the moon to be a light (of beauty), and measured out stages for her; that ye might know the number of years and the count (of time). Nowise did Allah create this but in truth and righteousness. (Thus) doth He explain His Signs in detail, for those who understand.” (10:5) The calendar is division of periods and time. The hijrah calendar was adopted as the standard for Muslims during Umar’s reaign as the Khalifah- Leader of the Muslims with consensus. History of the Islamic hijrah calendar There are several accounts of the history of the hijrah calendar. Some of which include: - “Maimunbn Mahraan said: “Umar was paid for Sha’baan, He said: “Is it the last Sha’baan or the next or the current? Then he gathered the Prophet’s companions (pbuh) and instructed thus: “establish for people what they will recognize (in dating)” Someone said: “Write in accordance to the Roman date” They said: “that will be too long, they do write from the time of Dhul-Qarnain”. Another said: “Write in accordance to the Persian date” They said: “As a new king assumes the throne he discards what exist before him”. They then agreed on the number of period of the Prophet’s stay in Madinah, which was discovered to be ten years. And they wrote date in line with the Prophet’s (pbuh) hijrah” - Uthman bn Ubaid said: I heard Sa’eed bn Musayyab saying: Umar (R.A) gathered the Muhajiruns and the Ansars and said: “From when should we commence the date”, Ali bn Abi Talib said: “From when the Prophet (pbuh) left the land of polytheism i.e, from the day he migrated. And Umar bn Khattab wrote that. He wrote this by 16th of Muharram two and a half years into his throne, based on the advice of Ali bin Abi Talib - may Allah be pleased with him. - Ibn Hajar gave as the reason for choosing Muharram as commencement date instead of Rabiul-Awwal- the month of his migration. That the companions that consulted with Umar proposed four events that could be used for the date as follow: the Prophet’s birth, the day he was made a prophet, the day he migrated and the day he died. But the day he was born and made a prophet were with lots of controversies, and they also neglected the day he died as this will be a source of grief and agony for Muslims. No other than the hijrah was left and they chose it as the commencement date for the hijrah calendar. (Umar bn Khattaab, his personality and era; pg: 139- 140) Difference between Hijrah and Gregorian Calendar 1- Hijrah is lunar based while Gregorian is sun based. 2- Hijrah calendar has 29 or 30 days monthly while the Gregorian is 31, 30, 29, or 28 days. 3- Hijrah calendar is connected with the Islamic Shariah Laws e.g Fasting, Zakat, Hajj, Divorce, etc but the Gregorian is connected with idolatry. Importance of the Hijrah Calendar 1- The hijrah calendar is of nature as Islam is a natural religion. Allah says: :" فأقِمْ وَجْهَكَ للدِّينِ حنِيفًا فِطْرَتَ اللَّهِ الَّتِي فَطَّرَ النَّاسَ عَلَيْهَا لاَ تَبْدِيلَ لِخَلْقِ اللَّهِ ذَلِكَ الدِّينُ الْقَيِّمُ ولكنَّ أكْثَرَ النَّاسِ لاَ يَعْلَمُونَ" (الرّوم:30) “So direct your face toward the religion, inclining to truth. [Adhere to] the fitrah of Allah upon which He has created [all] people. No change should there be in the creation of Allah. That is the correct religion, but most of the people do not know.” (30: 30) 2- It represents the reviving of the Prophet’s Sunnah. Allah says: "قُلْ إنْ كُنْتُمْ تُحِبُّونَ اللَّهَ فَاتَّبِعُونِي يُحْبِبْكُمُ اللَّهُ فيَغْفِرْ لَكُمْ ذُنُوبَكُمْ وَاللَّهُ غَفُورٌ رَحِيمٌ" (آل عمران:31) “Say, [O Muhammad], "If you should love Allah, then follow me, [so] Allah will love you and forgive you your sins. And Allah is Forgiving and Merciful." (3: 31) The Prophet said: “… So for you is to observe my Sunnah and the Sunnah of the rightly-principled and rightly-guided successors, holding on to them with your molar teeth.” 3- It reminds of the Islamic history from the time of the Prophet (pbuh) till the present time. Allah says of the importance of history: (وكُلاًّ نَقُصُّ عليْكَ مِنْ أنْبَآءِ الرُّسُلِ ما نُثَبِّتُ بِهِ فُؤادَكَ...(هود:120) “And each [story] We relate to you from the news of the messengers is that by which We make firm your heart. “ (11: 120) 4- The hijrah calendar is a landmark and signposts for du’aat and workers on the path of Allah. The Prophet said: “Allah shall raise persons who will reform the religion every century” This chronology is based on the hijrah calendar. 5- The counting for menstrual circle, the waiting period of the divorced or the bereaved woman is based on the lunar calendar. 6- The hijrah calendar is also used in Islamic laws: such as fasting for atonement in cases like deliberate killing, Zhihaar, intercourse during the day in Ramadan, supererogatory fasts like 13th, 14th and 15th days monthly, Ashurah, first ten days of Dhul-hijjah, the sacred months, Arafat day for non-pilgrims etc. Allah says: :" إنَّ عِدَّةَ الشُّهورِ عِنْدَ اللَّه اثْنا عَشَرَ شَهْرًا يَوْمَ خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالأَرْضَ مِنْهَا أَرْبَعَةٌ حُرُمٌ ذلكَ الدِّنُ الْقَيِّمُ فَلاَ تَظْلِمُوا فِيهِنَّ أَنْفُسَكُمْ" (التَّوبة: 36). “Indeed, the number of months with Allah is twelve [lunar] months in the register of Allah [from] the day He created the heavens and the earth; of these, four are sacred. That is the correct religion, so do not wrong yourselves during them. “ (9: 36) Benefits of the hijrah calendar 1- There are so many benefits some of which include religious, social, economic etc. It is used generally for both worldly and religious affairs. Allah says: "يَسْئَلُونَكَ عَنِ الأَهلَّةِ قُلْ هِيَ مَوَاقِيتُ لِلنَّاسِ والْحَجِّ..."(البقرة:189) “They ask you, [O Muhammad], about the new moons. Say, "They are measurements of time for the people and for Hajj." (2: 189). Hence it is used in religious activities for solat timing, zakat, fasting, hajj and umrah. Likewise in mundane affairs; for letter writing, planting and harvest periods, recording of events like marriages, births, deaths, agreement, appointments etc. 2- It is also used for all business and financial transactions like buying and selling, loans, salaries and wages. Allah says: “O you who have believed, when you contract a debt for a specified term, write it down. “ (2: 286). Using the hijrah calendar for payments of salaries, employees would have gained complete one year extra at the end of every thirty years, in comparison with the Gregorian calendar. Islam and the hijrah calendar Dear Muslims, to forget or show ignorance about the hijrah calendar is tantamount to displacement of the identity of the Muslim nations. It also permits the hegemony of the western Christian identity over it, in addition to being imitation of the misled nation. The Prophet said: “Whoever imitates a people is of them”. We must make the calendar relevant in our daily, weekly, monthly and annual affairs, apply it to all our correspondence, appointments, and teach our children, wives and families. We hereby call on all Muslim countries, Islamic organizations, and individuals to apply the hijrah calendar even if it requires mentioning the corresponding Gregorian date, if they are sincere in their faith in the religion, till a better situation presents itself. SECOND KHUTBAH All praises are due to Allah. May the peace and blessing of Allah be upon Prophet Muhammad, his household, companions and believers till the end of time. Thereafter, Allah says: " وَءَاتِ ذَا الْقُرْبَى حَقَّهُ وَالْمِسْكِينَ وَابْنَ السَّبِيلِ وَلاَ تُبَذِّرْ تَبْذِيراً* إنَّ الْمُبَذِّرِينَ كَانُوا إِخْوَانَ الشَّيَاطِينِ وَكَانَ الشَّيطَانَ لِرَبِّه كَفُوراً* (الإسراء:26-27). “And give the relative his right, and [also] the poor and the traveler, and do not spend wastefully. Indeed, the wasteful are brothers of the devils, and ever has Satan been to his Lord ungrateful.” (17: 26- 27) It is regrettable that the Government of Nigeria spends a lot of money on frivolous things which does not have direct benefit to the citizens. What an open loss! Some weeks ago the golden Eaglets of Nigeria won the U-17 world cup. Nigerians- the government and the people were very excited and cheerful, but suddenly they have forgotten the various problems we languish in, including the social, economic, educational, political, religious and psychological problems. The federal government spent a huge amount on the players as usual, but university lecturers (ASUU) have been on strike for nearly five months. Infact, in the process of searching for solutions to the problem, the former president of ASUU - Professor Festus Iyayi met his death. In addition to that was the whooping 255 million spent by the Aviation minister for the purchase of two bulletproof cars! The hype in the last few weeks on the issue was very high, but unfortunately nothing is heard again on the issue. The gubernatorial election in Anambra state saw a situation where some names of voters were missing on the voters’ list. This threatens the future of election in Nigeria, when the Election Commission (INEC) is unable to conduct free and fair election in a single state, with all its human and material resources, then, the general election in 2015 could be a charade. Oh Allah descend peace; flowing with continuous tranquility and security upon Nigeria and all other Muslim nations. O Allah accept the worship of the pilgrims of hajj and Umrah, and grant us all Your pleasure, And the last of our call will be, "Praise to Allah, Lord of the worlds!"