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Saturday, August 24, 2013

HAJJ: RULING AND HISTORY

Praise be to Allah for honouring the sacred house in His wisdom and for making visit to it an obligation on who have the ability among Muslims and the believers. He also forgives who visits the site. I praise Him and seek His forgiveness. I seek refuge in Him from the evils of our souls and that of our actions. Whom Allah guides, none can mislead, and whom He cause to stray, none will you find as a guide for him. I bear witness that there is no god but Allah alone and I bear witness that Muhammad is His servant and Messenger, he was sent with the best religion. O Allah! Bestow peace and blessings on Your servant and messenger- Muhammad (pbuh), his families, his righteous and generous companions. Thereafter, O Servant of Allah, I urge you to fear Allah for you shall meet Him soon. Take admonition from the passing life events, maximize your life in good deeds, for surely it is ending swiftly. Allah say: {وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ} (آل عمران 130). “but fear Allah that you may be successful. (3:130) Definition of Hajj: Dear Muslims, we have just pass by the Ramadan institution where we learnt a great lessons of morals. Today, we commence with another Islamic institution for training and development. This is the holy pilgrimage institution where we shall learn more morals to develop our souls. Linguistically, the word Hajj- pilgrimage means: ‘the intent to set out for a place’ it is said grammatically thus: ‘Muhammad made pilgrimage to us’ meaning: ‘Muhammad approached or reached us or set out towards us’ Technically, it is the intention of visiting the Ka’bah to perform certain prescribed rites some of which are obligatory and non-obligatory. It could also be described as visit to specific sites during specific times in order to perform some specific rites. The visitation here mentioned is the journey, the specific sites are the ka’bah and mount ‘Arafah, while the specific times are the months of hajj- Shawwal, Dhul- Qa’dah and the first ten days in Dhul- Hijjah; every rite has specific time. And the specific rites include coming for hajj in the state of ihram to the specific sites. Allah said: {الْحَجُّ أَشْهُرٌ مَعْلُومَاتٌ فَمَنْ فَرَضَ فِيهِنَّ الْحَجَّ فَلَا رَفَثَ وَلا فُسُوقَ وَلا جِدَالَ فِي الْحَجِّ وَمَا تَفْعَلُوا مِنْ خَيْرٍ يَعْلَمْهُ اللَّهُ وَتَزَوَّدُوا فَإِنَّ خَيْرَ الزَّادِ التَّقْوَى وَاتَّقُونِ يَا أُولِي الأَلْبَابِ}(البقرة : 197) “Hajj is [during] well-known months, so whoever has made Hajj obligatory upon himself therein [by entering the state of ihram], there is [to be for him] no sexual relations and no disobedience and no disputing during Hajj. And whatever good you do - Allah knows it. And take provisions, but indeed, the best provision is fear of Allah. And fear Me, O you of understanding.” (2:197) The Ruling on performing Hajj: Dear Muslims, the Hajj is one of the five pillars of Islam, and one of its obligations explicitly indicated in the Qur’an and Sunnah, the scholarly consensus and reason. It is a mandatory obligation for every individual with the ability once in a lifetime, and whoever denies it has disbelieved except if he is only a newcomer to Islam or grew up in the rural environment detached from civilization and neighbours. The Almighty Allah said: {وَأَتِمُّواْ الْحَجَّ وَالْعُمْرَةَ لِلَّهِ}(البقرة:196) { And complete the Hajj and 'umrah for Allah. } (2: 196), Also Allah says: {وَللَّهِ عَلَى النَّاسِ حِجُّ الْبَيْتِ مَنِ اسْتَطَاعَ إِلَيْهِ سَبِيلاً وَمَن كَفَرَ فَإِنَّ الله غَنِىٌّ عَنِ الْعَالَمِينَ} (آل عمران:97) {And [due] to Allah from the people is a pilgrimage to the House - for whoever is able to find thereto a way. But whoever disbelieves - then indeed, Allah is free from need of the worlds. } (3: 97) 'Abdullah bin 'Umar, may Allah be pleased with him said: the Messenger of Allah peace be upon him said: "Islam has been built upon five things - on testifying that there is no god save Allah, and that Muhammad is His Messenger; on performing salah; on giving the zakah; on fasting during Ramadhan; and on Hajj to the House for he who has the ability to perform it."[Al-Bukhari & Muslim] Abu Hurairah narrates that once, in a sermon, the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: "O people! Allah has prescribed Hajj for you, so you must perform it." A man asked: "Every year, O Prophet of Allah?" The Prophet (peace be upon him) remained silent. When the man repeated it thrice, the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: "Had I said 'yes', it would have become a yearly obligation, and this would have been beyond your power." Then he added: "Leave me alone so long as I leave you alone (i.e., do not pester me with questions about things which I omit and do not mention). Some people who lived before you were destroyed because they asked too many questions and disagreed with their Prophets. So when I command you to do something, you must obey and do it to the best of your power, and if I forbid you from something, then avoid it." (Bukhari and Muslim) History of the pilgrimage: O brothers in Islam and faith, the sacred House of Allah is the minaret of monotheism built by the father of monotheism- Ibrahim peace be upon him. Ibrahim came with Haajarah- his wife and her son Isma’eel still in suckling stage to Makkah. He stationed them at the sacred old House of Allah by a large tree over the Zamzam above the mosque. Then, Makkah had no human soul living there, nor water, but Ibrahim left the two- Haajarah and Isma’eel, there, leaving with them only a waterskin and a bag of dates. When prophet Ibrahim (A.S) took off, the wife followed him and said: “O Ibrahim, where are you going while you left us in this Valley, where there is no person or thing? She repeated this severally, but he did not look at her. Then she said to him: “Has Allah commanded you to act this way? He said: “Yes”. She then said: “Then, He- Allah will not neglect us”. Then Ibrahim (peace be upon him) left until he reached the mountain path where they could not see him, he faced the ka’bah and supplicated as follows: {رَّبَّنَا إِنَّى أَسْكَنتُ مِن ذُرّيَّتِى بِوَادٍ غَيْرِ ذِى زَرْعٍ عِندَ بَيْتِكَ الْمُحَرَّمِ رَبَّنَا لِيُقِيمُواْ الصلاةَ فَاجْعَلْ أَفْئِدَةً مّنَ النَّاسِ تَهْوِى إِلَيْهِمْ وَارْزُقْهُمْ مّنَ الثَّمَراتِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَشْكُرُونَ}(إبراهيم:37) { Our Lord, I have settled some of my descendants in an uncultivated valley near Your sacred House, our Lord, that they may establish prayer. So make hearts among the people incline toward them and provide for them from the fruits that they might be grateful. } (14: 37), The mother of Isma’eel continued to breastfeed her son- Isma’eel, and give him to drink of the water until it finished. She became thirsty likewise the son, she began to stare at him and to move in a twisting or contorted motion. She eventually set out in dislike of mere staring at him without effort. She mounted the mount Safa and faced the valley, searching if she could see anyone around, but she did not. Then she mounted the mount Marwah, and she searched if she could see anyone again, but she did not see anyone. And she did like that seven times. When she got to mount Marwah, she heard a voice but she said: “silence” and she paid rapt attention and she heard. Behold! It was the Angel at the zam-zam place who continued to scratch the ground with his heel until water sprouted therefrom and she collected it with her hands. Thus she drank and fed her son. The Angel said: “Don’t be afraid of neglect, this house shall be built by this boy and his father” (Bukhari) Ibrahim and his son built the House, and Allah ordered Ibrahim (peace be upon him) to call people for the pilgrimage. Allah said: {وَأَذّنْ فِى النَّاسِ بِالْحَجّ يَأْتُوكَ رِجَالاً وَعَلَى كُلّ ضَامِرٍ يَأْتِينَ مِن كُلّ فَجّ عَميِقٍ} (الحج:27) {And proclaim to the people the Hajj [pilgrimage]; they will come to you on foot and on every lean camel; they will come from every distant pass } (Hajj: 27). And Ibrahim said: “O my Lord, how will I informed people while my voice cannot reach them? Allah said: “Yours is to make the call and for Us is the conveyance” Then Ibrahim stood up where he was, (other narrations mentioned he stood on mount Safa or Mount of Abu Qubays) and said: “O people, your Lord had selected a house (for His worship), you must make pilgrimage to the place”. Upon this, the mountains were lowered creating passage for his voice to reach every part of the world. Everything in the world that heard the call including stones, sands and trees and persons Allah had destined will perform pilgrimage till end of time responded thus: “O Allah! We obey Your call, We obey Your call”. Hajj and the attitudes of the days of Ignorance Dear valued audience, the pilgrimage continued after Ibrahim and his son Isma’eel (may Allah’s peace be upon them) on the true religion without adulteration. But with the passage of days and prolonged time some changes set in during the pre-Islamic era part of which includes: 1- They interpolated statement of shirk against Allah in the Talbiyah thus: (We answer Your call, there is no partner with You, We answer Your call except only a partner which You have and own whatever he owns). Here they have associated partner with Allah among His servants but Allah refuted the practice thus: { ضَرَبَ لَكُمْ مَثَلًا مِنْ أَنْفُسِكُمْ هَلْ لَكُمْ مِنْ مَا مَلَكَتْ أَيْمَانُكُمْ مِنْ شُرَكَاءَ فِي مَا رَزَقْنَاكُمْ فَأَنْتُمْ فِيهِ سَوَاءٌ تَخَافُونَهُمْ كَخِيفَتِكُمْ أَنْفُسَكُمْ كَذَلِكَ نُفَصِّلُ الآيَاتِ لِقَوْمٍ يَعْقِلُونَ } (الروم:28) {He presents to you an example from yourselves. Do you have among those whom your right hands possess any partners in what We have provided for you so that you are equal therein [and] would fear them as your fear of one another [within a partnership]? Thus do We detail the verses for a people who use reason. } (30: 28). Ibn Abbaas (R.A) said: 'Which you fear they inherit you as inherit one another, therefore, if you fear this for yourself and you feel displeased with this happening to you, then how can you be pleased with making the gods you worship My partners when they are in actual fact My servants!!! 2- They circumambulate the holy House naked believing it as an act of obedience, but Allah refuted the claim thus: وَإِذَا فَعَلُوا فَاحِشَةً قَالُوا وَجَدْنَا عَلَيْهَا آبَاءَنَا وَاللَّهُ أَمَرَنَا بِهَا قُلْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لا يَأْمُرُ بِالْفَحْشَاءِ أَتَقُولُونَ عَلَى اللَّهِ مَا لَا تَعْلَمُونَ} (الأعراف:28 “And when they commit an immorality, they say, "We found our fathers doing it, and Allah has ordered us to do it." Say, "Indeed, Allah does not order immorality. Do you say about Allah that which you do not know?" (7: 28). That is it is not worthy of His perfection and wisdom to order His servants to partake of evil; not any form of evil as perpetrated by these infidels or others. Then, our Lord Almighty commanded them to dress and cover their nakedness during Prayer, Tawaaf and others. Allah the Almighty says: { يَا بَنِي آدَمَ خُذُوا زِينَتَكُمْ عِنْدَ كُلِّ مَسْجِدٍ } (الأعراف:31). {O children of Adam, take your adornment at every mosque} (7: 31). 3- Also residents of the sacred sites do not stand with the people in 'Arafah instead they stayed at Muzdalifah because they claimed they are residents of the holy sites and it is not right for them to leave the sites and stand with other Arabs at ‘Arafah, but Allah refuted the claim and ordered them to join other people at ‘Arafah and descend therefrom to Muzdalifah together as that was the tradition of Ibrahim and Isma’eel, (peace be upon them). Allah the Almighty says: { ثُمَّ أَفِيضُوا مِنْ حَيْثُ أَفَاضَ النَّاسُ وَاسْتَغْفِرُوا اللَّهَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ غَفُورٌ رَحِيمٌ } (البقرة:199). {Then depart from the place from where [all] the people depart and ask forgiveness of Allah. Indeed, Allah is Forgiving and Merciful. } (2: 199). Thereafter, through Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) Allah returned the pilgrimage to pure monotheism, having covering of privacy and staying at the holy precincts as it was in the tradition of prophet Ibrahim (A.S). The prophet (pbuh) announced to people before he performed the Hajj thus: (After this year, no Mushrik will perform Hajj, and the circumambulation of the ka’bah will not be done naked anymore) (narrated by Al-bukhari). This is in practical compliance with the words of Allah: { يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِنَّمَا الْمُشْرِكُونَ نَجَسٌ فَلَا يَقْرَبُوا الْمَسْجِدَ الْحَرَامَ بَعْدَ عَامِهِمْ هَذَا وَإِنْ خِفْتُمْ عَيْلَةً فَسَوْفَ يُغْنِيكُمُ اللَّهُ مِنْ فَضْلِهِ إِنْ شَاءَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَلِيمٌ حَكِيمٌ} (التوبة:28) { O you who have believed, indeed the polytheists are unclean, so let them not approach al-Masjid al-Haram after this, their [final] year. And if you fear privation, Allah will enrich you from His bounty if He wills. Indeed, Allah is Knowing and Wise. } (10: 28) { وَطَهِّرْ بَيْتِيَ لِلطَّائِفِينَ وَالْقَائِمِينَ وَالرُّكَّعِ السُّجُودِ} (الحج:26). Allah says: "{and purify My House for those who perform Tawaf and those who stand [in prayer] and those who bow and prostrate. } (Hajj: 26). In the late part of the ninth year after hijrah, the pilgrimage was made obligatory thus: {وَلِلّهِ عَلَى النَّاسِ حِجُّ الْبَيْتِ مَنِ اسْتَطَاعَ إِلَيْهِ سَبِيلاً} (آل عمران 97) “And [due] to Allah from the people is a pilgrimage to the House - for whoever is able to find thereto a way.” (3:97) The verse was revealed according to the position of majority of Islamic scholars in the year of delegations- the last part of the ninth year. Having said this, I seek forgive from Allah for me and you and all Muslims, do seek His forgiveness He is Oft-forgiving. THE SECOND SERMON Praise be to Allah, the Lord of the worlds, the lord of the foremost and later generations, and may peace and blessings be upon our Prophet Muhammad, his companions and those who follow them in righteousness. Muslims, security, safety, tranquillity and stability are basic requirements and demands for humanity. Under Security life is active knowledge is spread, and people can worship their Lord and enjoy a benefitting life where the tree of social wellbeing grows. This was the focus of the supplication of Prophet Ibrahim (A.S): {رَبِّ اجْعَلْ هَذَا الْبَلَدَ آمِنًا وَاجْنُبْنِي وَبَنِيَّ أَنْ نَعْبُدَ الأَصْنَامَ رَبِّ إِنَّهُنَّ أَضْلَلْنَ كَثِيرًا مِنْ النَّاسِ فَمَنْ تَبِعَنِي فَإِنَّهُ مِنِّي وَمَنْ عَصَانِي فَإِنَّكَ غَفُورٌ رَحِيمٌ رَبَّنَا إِنِّي أَسْكَنتُ مِنْ ذُرِّيَّتِي بِوَادٍ غَيْرِ ذِي زَرْعٍ عِنْدَ بَيْتِكَ الْمُحَرَّمِ رَبَّنَا لِيُقِيمُوا الصَّلاةَ فَاجْعَلْ أَفْئِدَةً مِنْ النَّاسِ تَهْوِي إِلَيْهِمْ وَارْزُقْهُمْ مِنْ الثَّمَرَاتِ لعلهم يشكرون}(إبراهيم:35-37). {And [mention, O Muhammad], when Abraham said, "My Lord, make this city [Makkah] secure and keep me and my sons away from worshipping idols. My Lord, indeed they have led astray many among the people. So whoever follows me - then he is of me; and whoever disobeys me - indeed, You are [yet] Forgiving and Merciful. Our Lord, I have settled some of my descendants in an uncultivated valley near Your sacred House, our Lord, that they may establish prayer. So make hearts among the people incline toward them and provide for them from the fruits that they might be grateful. (14:35-37) Examine how prophet Ibrahim placed request for security before provision and sustenance because livelihood will be meaningless without security. Dear Muslims, obedience to Allah and His Messenger is a basic requirement for stability and survival in times of crises, {وَلَوْ أَنَّهُمْ فَعَلُوا مَا يُوعَظُونَ بِهِ لَكَانَ خَيْرًا لَهُمْ وَأَشَدَّ تَثْبِيتًا وَإِذًا لآتَيْنَاهُمْ مِنْ لَدُنَّا أَجْرًا عَظِيمًا وَلَهَدَيْنَاهُمْ صِرَاطًا مُسْتَقِيمًا} (النساء 66_68). “And if We had decreed upon them, "Kill yourselves" or "Leave your homes," they would not have done it, except for a few of them. But if they had done what they were instructed, it would have been better for them and a firmer position [for them in faith]. And then We would have given them from Us a great reward. And We would have guided them to a straight path”. (4: 66- 68) Sins and mischief are also the fundamental causes of fear, anxiety, calamities and tribulations thus Allah ordered the Muslim nations to pray for forgiveness and repentance, and He had promised to provide them enjoyment, blessings, good things, expanse in living, wealth and good off springs, provided they are obedient. However, if they are disobedient, they will be in great torment in this world and in the hereafter. Allah says: { وَأَنِ اسْتَغْفِرُوا رَبَّكُمْ ثُمَّ تُوبُوا إِلَيْهِ يُمَتِّعْكُمْ مَتَاعًا حَسَنًا إِلَى أَجَلٍ مُسَمًّى وَيُؤْتِ كُلَّ ذِي فَضْلٍ فَضْلَهُ وَإِنْ تَوَلَّوْا فَإِنِّي أَخَافُ عَلَيْكُمْ عَذَابَ يَوْمٍ كَبِيرٍ} (هود3). {And [saying], "Seek forgiveness of your Lord and repent to Him, [and] He will let you enjoy a good provision for a specified term and give every doer of favor his favor. But if you turn away, then indeed, I fear for you the punishment of a great Day. } (11:3). The Muslim nations today is in dire need of a return and repentance to Allah- their Lord, and to cooperate in goodness and piety and to shun evil, particularly in this trying period where the enemies have laid siege upon Islam, Muslims and their lands. Oh Allah make the Qur’an the succor to our hearts, light to our faces, remover of our grief and sorrow. O Allah show us the truth and grant us the wherewithal to follow it, show us falsehood and grant us the wherewithal to desist. O Allah forgive the believers; men and women, and the Muslim men and women, both the living and the deceased, You are All- hearing, most near, answerer of prayers. O Allah make this nation- Nigeria peaceful, safe, generous, with abundant welfare, and all other Muslim nations.

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